FR-4, is a widely acceptable international grade desination for fiberglass reinforced epoxy laminated. that are flame retardant (self extinguishing). After add copper layer on one or each side FR4, it become to Copper Clad Laminate (CCL). and this is the non-conductive core materail for normal printed cricuit board (PCB). Printed circuit board using FR4 as core material will named as "FR4 PCB".
PCB used to support and connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks. or signal traces etched from copper clad laminate substrate. Sometimes, PCB also named Printed Wiring Board (PWB) or etching wiring board. if no extra electronic components added on.
Also called FR-4 or FR4, Fr-4 means flame retardant, and the four shows a course of the materials used. Fr-4 is a name and a ranking. It utilized as a name during produce of the PCB. and the fiberglass-reinforced with epoxy-laminated linens. As a ranking, the Fr-4 can used in the grading of the epoxy laminate bedding as a sign of their quality.
In the event that you often offer with PCBs, chances are that you will acquainted with the Fr-4 materials. It is a favorite PCB base materials as it is the primary ingredient found. in the production of rigid circuit planks.
The Fr-4 materials is a framework made up of fiberglass weaved to a slim and cloth-looking sheet. It's the fiberglass that provides the Fr-4 recognition. as a good base for production of rigid circuit planks. It enclosed with a fire-resistant epoxy resin. which is where in fact the rigidity originates from.
The name FR4 comes from the NEMU grading system. where the ‘FR’ stands for ‘fire retardant’, compliant with the UL94V-0 standard. You may have noticed that on the Seeed Fusion order page the FR4 option followed by TG130. The TG refers to the transition glass temperature – the temperature at. which the glass-reinforced material will start to deform and soften. For Fusion’s standard boards this value is 130°C, which is more than enough for most applications. Special High TG materials can withstand temperatures of 170 – 180°C and. can ordered online using the Advanced PCB service.
FR4 laminates owe their flame resistance due to its bromine content. a non-reactive halogen commonly used in industry for its flame retarding properties. This gives FR4 materials obvious advantages as a stock PCB material. especially in prototyping where circuits are still in the initial testing stages. and may pushed to extremes. It is also a little assuring if your soldering skills are not up to standard. Other similar grades used for PCBs include FR2. which is a type of fire retarding fiberglass resin bonded paper and G10 which is not flame resistant at all.
FR2 is cheaper and so has its uses in mass production of low-end electrical equipment. G10, a predecessor to FR4, has all but taken over by the safer FR4 standard. Its only use in PCBs now are in designs that desire this flammable property. This blog has covered more information on rigid PCB materials. than the average hobbyist will ever need. but should you ever find the use for High TG or more specialized materials. you can check out Seeed Fusion Advanced PCB service. for more options including high-frequency boards and rigid-flex PCBs.
According to number of copper trace layers. FR4 printed circuit board divided into following types:
Single Sided (S/S), or Single layer;
Double Sided (D/S), or double layer, 2Layers, 2L;
Four Layers (4L), Six Layers (6L), Eight Layers (8L), Ten Layers (10L)
Board with more than 10L
In fact, for board more than four layers, people will named it "Multi-layer PCB". According to that standard. there're only three types of PCB: Single, Double and Multi-layers.
If divide the board according to manufacturing technology. major based on hole diamter size, it'll divid into two types:
Normal through hole (diameter >=0.20mm (8mil)
HDI (diameter <=0.15mm (6mil)
According to copper thickness, it can divided into
Normall copper: copper thickness: 0.5 OZ, 1.0 OZ, 2.0 OZ,
Heavy copper: copper thickness: >= 3 OZ
According to core material, it can divided into
Rigid FR4 PCB: Only FR4, it is rigid for whole board;
Rigid-flex circuits: Rigid FR4 plus flexible circuits;
According to Tg value of FR4, it can divided into
Normal Tg: Value 130, 135, 140;
High Tg: Value 170, 180;
According to radio frequency (RF) level of PCB, it can divided into
Normal: < 300 Mhz
High Radio Frequency: 300MHz ~ 3GHz,or even bigger
According to board thickness, it can divided into
Extra Thin: 0.10~0.30mm;
Fr4 PCB feature
If you’re walking on the road, a speed bump or two won’t bother you. But ramp up the speed, and you’re in for a shocking ride. The same applies to copper traces on the PCB. If you’re dealing with slow-changing signal edges, there aren’t any issues on signal integrity. But when you start having fast-changing signal edges. the characteristic of a PCB trace has changed.
Note that we’re talking about the switching edges of a signal. and it has nothing to do with the operating frequency of the component. This means that a low-frequency signal may switch from logic high to low in picoseconds. At such high switching rate, the capacitance . and inductance characteristic of a PCB becomes prominent.
For AC applications, these characteristics result in impedance. which depends on the frequency of the propagation signal. In PCB design, it is crucial for the impedance of the driver to match those of the receiver. A mismatched impedance can visualized like a ‘bump. and it can cause the signal to reflect at the end of the receiver back into the copper trace.
Signal reflection due to impedance mismatch may cause signal integrity issues. The rule of thumb is to be cautious. when the edge rate is less than ⅙ of the propagation delay on the length of the copper trace. Electric signals travel 1 inch in 6 ns on an Fr4 copper trace. If you have an edge rate of 1ns and the copper trace is longer than 1 inch. you’ll need to take appropriate measures for impedance control.
The easiest way to match the impedance of the driver and receiver is to use resistive matching. In this technique, a resistor. with a value that matches the source impedance placed either in series. or parallel with the receiver.
Besides resistive matching, there are other techniques that help in reducing signal reflection. An obvious trick is to reduce the PCB trace length. The longer the PCB trace is, high more susceptible it is to signal reflection.
You’ll also want to consider the return path of the signal. After all, impedance doesn’t only exist on the signal trace but the returning path as well. For high-frequency signals or signals with a fast edge rate. you’ll want to route the PCB trace over a returning ground plane. Avoid routing the signal over a split plane as it may cause impedance discontinuity.
Of course, you’ll want to play safe by using PCB layout, design. and analysis tools that equipped with advanced simulation capabilities. OrCAD PCB Designer has excellent constraint management options. and can augmented with simulation. and analysis tools to ensure your layout matches up with your impedance. and SI standards.
standard fr4 thickness
Among other reasons the Fr-4 is popular is. because of the reduced cost of its materials and its own versatility. The FR-4 bedsheets have an enormous dielectric power as electric insulators. Besides, they may be lightweight, drinking water and heat-resistant. in a nutshell, it is a materials ideal for various environmental conditions.
The Fr-4 standard PCB thickness assessed in millimeters or ins. The usage of either calibration depends upon what the developer or manufacturer choose. Because of the popular use of the Fr-4 substrate, the number of its. following table thickness can go for some extreme. It is usually from 3″ completely to 10″.
So with such an array of Fr-4 thickness, what factors would a developer consider in the production of the PCB?
Component Compatibility. Despite the fact that the Fr-4 can utilized in the production of every printed circuit panel. its thickness has results on the plank component compatibility. For example, large through-hole PCB parts. differing with most components as they have through-holes. that want small PCB thickness.
Space: Space can be an indispensable factor. when making PCBs especially during produce of small devices. such as USB connectors and Bluetooth Accessories. thinner planks are fitting where conserving space is essential.
Design Requirements: Most manufacturers choose thicker planks to slimmer ones. Why? With Fr-4 substrate, slimmer boards will get damaged when these are too large. Also, they absence groove features. Or, thicker planks are versatile and also have groove features. Thus, it might be smart to consider the excess weight of the PCB.
Versatility: It is debatable of whether versatility arises from slimmer. or thicker planks but the right answer would be- it depends upon where in fact the PCB has used. and its own application. Why don't we take a good example of the use of the Electronic Control Device in the medical field. slimmer boards make sure you encounter less stress. As of this situation, slimmer boards lead to very versatile PCBs.
but, whenever a PCB has manufactured using slimmer planks can be bothersome especially. during soldering. Because of the flexibility, the planks will bend when they may soldered. leading to the other components to curve within an undesired position. Along the way, the components and their contacts can also break bringing on a damaged table.
Impedance Matching: The thickness of the panel is vital. when working with multilayer planks since impedance coordinating is crucial. That's as the layers create the dialectic which facilitates impedance control.
A producer is usually aware. that with high-frequency indicators components like in a microwave impedance complementing are essential. and the capacitance should considered on each coating. Without impedance matching, enough board functionality quantities to almost no.
Contacts: Another significant factor that impacts the customer’s desired. width of the PCB design is the advantage connector. Through the manufacture of the PCB, a producer should be careful with the Fr-4 thickness. In the event the connector’s mating part will not match, the results would be harm of the PCB.
To avoid such incidents, the materials found. in the making of the PCB made the decision following the circuit design is complete. It functions as a template or blueprint of the PCB that suits the mating part of the connector or element.
Weight: Certainly, the thickness of the plank will impact on the weight of the PCB. A producer may not take keenness on the weight of the PCB, but it is of great significance to the client. A lighter table means conserving on shopping cost as the ultimate product is lighter.
In conclusion, despite having such an array of thickness, a slimmer level is more ideal for a tool. non-etheless, a developer is never sure. whether a little panel would match your mating elements of connectors. and through-holes of devices. Thus, the sensible choice will be to go for the typical PCB thickness.
pcb material fr4 laminate thickness chart
This is the standard laminate used in our sector of the industry. We carry stocks of all the main variants. The standard thickness used is 1.6mm, but we also stock 0.8mm, 1.0mm, 1.2mm, 2.0mm, 2.4mm, and 3.2mm. The most common copper thickness is 35 microns. or 1oz square foot but 70 microns 2 oz square Ft is used for higher current applications.
Its related to FR5 which is the old high temperature version, but has now replaced by the more common BT Epoxy type.
Not quite so used any more are the G10 and G11 Laminates. They are the old Non flame retardant versions of FR4 and FR5.
The last epoxy laminate worth a mention is the FR3 grade. Its a cross between FR2 and FR4. as it's constructed from the epoxy resin but using internal strengthening paper sheets. instead of the glass cloth. It had the advantage of being easier to punch for the traditional punch. and crunch mass production houses.
Listed on the links are two tables of figures. from our laminate specification sheet which include data on. dielectric constant and the thermal conductivity amongst other things.
Difference between FR4 and MCPCB in Printed Circuit Boards
One of the main reasons why you would avoid FR4 vs. a ceramic circuit board. or other MCPCB board has to do with heat transfer. Ceramic PCBs like aluminum nitride (AlN). and aluminum oxide (Al203) are extremely thermally conductive. FR4 PCB material is not. If you are using your boards in applications where heat is a real issue, like LED lighting. you will probably want to move away from standard FR4 boards towards ceramic boards. or other metal core PCBs. as metal core boards can more carry excess heat away from hot spots that can damage the board. by reducing the life of semiconductor junctions.
Other metal core PCB materials besides aluminum. and beryllium can include copper and steel alloy. Steel alloys provide a stiffness that you will not get with copper and aluminum. but are not as effective at heat transfer. Copper has the best ability to transfer. and dissipate heat as part of your printed circuit boards. but it is somewhat expensive. so companies on a budget producing. or purchasing many printed circuit boards will often opt for aluminum. as a cheaper but still effective heat-dissipating alternative to FR4 boards.
For most businesses. the most cost-effective solution will be metal core printed circuit boards. with an aluminum base. You get good rigidity and thermal conductivity at a more reasonable price. For this reason, if you order metal core printed circuit boards. and do not specify copper, you can usually expect an aluminum core.
The reason metal core PCBs are so much more effective at dissipating heat than FR4 boards is. due to their thermal conductivity dielectric material. which serves as a thermal bridge from the IC components to the metal plate. conducting heat through the core to a heat sink. If you have FR4 boards, you must add a topical heat sink to transfer heat through the board. or it will create damaging hotspots.
Besides to preventing hot spots, a metal core PCB’s thermal conductivity properties. also result in less thermal expansion and. as a result, greater dimensional stability. Thermal expansion can cause different layers of the board. to take on different shapes. or sizes, affecting the integrity and functionality of the board. Protection from thermal expansion is desirable.
Where Would I Use a Ceramic Circuit Board or Metal Core PCB?
It’s important to understand that there are many circumstances . where the use of an FR4 board indicated and acceptable. Certain applications, but, will call for a ceramic. or other metal core PCB to avoid putting your product at risk. These include:
LED lights, especially spotlights and high-current LEDs
Cars, especially power controllers, variable optical systems. exchange converters and power regulators for cars
Industrial power equipment
Semiconductor refrigeration devices
High power transistors and transistor arrays
Solar cell substrates
Other power applications, like DC converters and regulators
Others PCB base material
FR1 is the same as FR2. FR1 has a higher TG of 130oC instead of 105oC for FR2. Some laminate manufacturers who produce FR1 may not produce FR2. since the cost and usage are similar. and it is not cost effective for having both.
FR3 is also FR2. But instead of phenolic resin it uses an epoxy resin binder.
FR4 (FR = Flame Retardent )is a glass fiber epoxy laminate. It is the most commonly used PCB material. 1.60 mm (0.062inch). FR4 uses 8 layers glass fiber material. The maximum ambient temperature is between 120o and 130oC, depending on thickness.
In China FR4 is the most widely used PCB base material, next is FR1 then FR2. But FR1 and FR2 are usually used for 1-layer PCBs because they are not good for passing through holes. FR3 is not recommended to building multi-layer PCBs. FR4 is the best selection. FR4 is widely used because it is good to make from one- layer to multi-layer PCBs. With only FR4, PCB companies can make all kinds of PCBs. which leaves the management and quality control much easier. and it can reduce the cost!
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